Thursday, 26 May 2016


What ar Plyboards

Firstly let’s perceive what's Ply board?

Ply board may be a wood based mostly panel, fabricated from a core of softwood stripes that ar pasted along. These stripes ar typically twenty eight millimeter wide placed edge to edge that's sandwiched between 2 veneers of either softwood or hardwood  pasted  beneath  high. really plywood isa native term given to Blockboard. Blockboard is employed to denote plyboard chiefly in industries and factories.

Uses of Blockboard / plywood

Blockboards or Plyboards ar popularly used for article of furniture that cowl massive areas like table, doors, wardrobe shutters, shelves, for panel as partitions, etc. aside from these, plyboards have a really sensible screw holding ability and has sensible resistance to distortion. plywood is most often used for overhead shutters that isone in. or twenty five millimeter thick.

Composition of plywood

Plyboard panels accommodates three layers wherever one is veneer sheet that's covering each the perimeters ofplywood that sandwiches wood stripes in between. Plyboards ar typically created in five layers wherever 2 veneer sheets on every sides ar used for higher stability and one veneer sheet is sandwiched between the stripes of wood that is inturn sandwiches between veneer stripes. Plyboards ar accessible in varied sizes ad thickness too. The thickness of plywood ranges from 13mm to sixty millimeter.

Different surface end

Plyboard or blockboard cab even be bought in numerous endes like wood veneer finish, alkali end, etc. asornamental end surface.

Plyboard & plyboard

Just like blockboard, there ar many alternative terms relating plyboard not identified by all home homeowners. as an example plywood or blockboard is commonly confused with term plyboard and the other way around. Let MEclear this thought for all those home homeowners. plyboard and plywood ar 2 completely different terms.

Difference between plyboard and plywood

i.                     plyboard is created from many veneers pasted along and hot ironed to create a ply. These veneer sheets that re accustomed manufacture plyboard ar obtained from elite tree species. Whereas plywood or blockboardincorporates a timber frame crammed with solid wood batons.

ii.           Bloackboards or Plyboards ar typically thus light-weight in   weight as compablack     

   to plyboard.
iii.                    additionally plyboard is of superior material as compared to blockboard. .

iv.                   outwardly each seem to be similar. One will hunt for the board edge to differentiate betweenthe two. plyboardboard edge can show layers of sheets pasted to create plyboard. whereas plywood edge can have a solid woodlook.

Areas wherever plywood is good over plyboard

Plywood is commonly accustomed build furniture’s however it's a bent to sag or bend if accustomed cowl vastareas. Plyboards ar ideal for such areas. plywood is commonly most popular over plyboard for areas wherever longer items of wood is needed to create article of furniture like long tables, benches, panels, partitions, etc.

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Thursday, 12 May 2016


1. Joint development agreement & GPA

In latest instances, the most standard method for building residences is via a Joint development agreement (JDA). This is an contract signed between the landowner and the developer, the place the landowner offers the land to the developer to build and promote flats; in return, he will get a fixed set of flats to promote. The landowner problems a GPA to the developer.

2. Sharing agreement

The Sharing contract shows the landowner’s share and developer’s share in a JDA. This helps the customer clarify whether or not the apartment/property on the market belongs to the developer’s or the landowner’s share and investigate the validity of the vendor.

3. Call for inspection of original documents

Even though the builder more commonly has the entire fashioned documents in his possession, he will have pledged the property to a financial institution as collateral. On this case he may not have the originals. If this is the case, the builder has to provide a No-objection certificate (NOC) from the financial institution previous to the registration of the property, mentioning that the cash goes in the direction of paying off the loan and the property in query is freed from loan. When buying the landowner’s share of the property, this scrutiny is relatively much less significant on account that the landowner’s share is generally freed from loan in most JDAs.


1. Pahani or RTC

The Pahani is a sales file of tenancy and cultivation (RTC) that describes the rights, tenancy and crops important points for the property, equivalent to owners’ details, subject of the land, land income small print, water expense, soil kind, nature of possession of the land, liabilities, crops grown and many others. Ideally, the seller should have the RTCs from 1969 to date, and the entire mutations should be stated in the RTCs.

2. Record of rights and index of lands

This file comprises small print such because the extent of the property, names of the homeowners and so on. Even though this record has been discontinued by the income division, it's valuable in the tracing of titles. There are studies that it is being unofficially issued, nonetheless.

2. Mutation extract

The Mutation Extract is corresponding to an ‘agricultural khata’ and is issued by way of the village’s authentic accountant or Tehsildar. It involves an extract from the mutation register with valuable important points, such as those related to the previous proprietor, gift owner, the mode of acquisition of the property via sale or inheritance, and the total extent of the property.

3. Tippani and Podi extract

Tippani is a hand-drawn sketch from the files of the Survey division with admire to a property contained in a single survey number that isn't bifurcated into sub-survey numbers issued by means of the Survey department. For example, Hissa Podi extract refers to a sketch displaying fragments within a survey quantity with sub-survey numbers reminiscent of 159/1, 159/2 etc.

4. Akarband extract

The Akarband indicates the whole extent, boundaries and classifications of the property. That is issued by way of the Survey department.

5. Village map

The is report suggests a transparent map of the village where the property is centered. Documents for scrutiny for BDA sites Whenever executive acquires a land for progress of a design, the previous title is extinguished by way of law and title starts from the BDA’s acquisition of the property. The next records should aid in ascertaining the validity of the property papers.

i. Primary documents of title for BDA properties

•    Allotment letter: Issued by the BDA in favour of the present owner if he/she is the original allotted.

•    Possession letter: Issued by the BDA in favour of the present owner recording the handing over of the possession of the property to the present owner.

•    Lease-cum- sale deed executed and registered in favour of the allottee by the BDA.

•    Absolute Sale Deed executed and registered in favour of the allottee by the BDA with respect to the property after 10 years from the date of the original allotment.

•    Building Sanction Plan Issued by way of the BDA (or with the aid of the BBMP if the constructing used to be constructed after it was passed over to the BBMP by way of the BDA)

 where a building has been built on the property. The secondary documents of title for BDA websites are Khata, Tax paid receipts and EC, which were defined in the record of common documents. A radical scrutiny and verification of the above-acknowledged documents will allow you to make certain that the property that you're obtaining has a transparent, marketable title and will aid you to hinder fraudulent revenue and lengthy. Buying a BDA site Slotted as compensation to original owners in return for land acquisition to create the layout.

The BDA’s procedure of forming residential layouts from what's regularly agricultural land involves an incentive scheme. That is to make it handy for landowners to voluntarily surrender land. For every acre that the BDA acquires, the landowner is to be given a 60 × 40 web page. In principle, this scheme works out well for the landowner given that of the huge trade in land values once the design is created and the market worth appreciation of residential plots over time. However, this is where the method is distinctive from that of a BDA website online disbursed to a usual applicant.

1. For the sake of convenience, the BDA registers it in the name of the Khatedar.

2. Unlike the most likely allotted BDA sites, where all previous titles and titular claims are extinguished and the brand new allotted turns into the owner, in the case of the compensatory websites, the main issue is unique. The land would usually be ancestral land, and plenty of participants can declare rights over the property, akin to heirs, minors, and many others. Note that this ‘ancestral’ popularity includes forward into the compensatory web site as is.

3. In some cases, if the long-established landowners were illiterate or in need of money even to register the compensatory website to switch it to their name from the BDA, they would have then drawn up sale agreements with third parties or brokers. In such circumstances, it has been located that normally the house owners have gotten into agreements even earlier than they are distributed the sites.

4. These agreement holders then carry out the rest of the website acquisition formalities. They repeatedly pay the money for the registering the website itself. All his would have occurred by the point you run into this sort of web page, when you are prospecting.


Such sites may also be identified through the allotment letter of the BDA itself, so perpetually insist on seeing the allotment letter. A compensatory/incentive site shall be stated as such. Note that you're going to not be capable to identify the difference between a in most cases disbursed BDA site and a compensatory web page from a website plan map stone which is typically located at key road intersections within the layout. The allotment letter is required. If you're buying one of these web site, you must acquire the identical documents so that you can hint title claims, presence of minors, and so on. As within the case of purchasing sites on land with agricultural roots, described prior on this part. Bring the complete proprietor’s household tree into the scrutiny process. Ask about prior contract holders, and flush them out.

Wednesday, 11 May 2016

What documents to check while buying a property in Bangalore?

Whilst homes are an evergreen discipline of funding, there are men and women who search to buy property for the sake of residing too. Whichever the case is, it is only prudent to determine and ensure that the property is thoroughly legal, given the quantity of Akrama Sakrama and GPA scams which were stated within the metropolis. Here is an attempt to reply various questions that a purchaser would have in intellect.

1. Which are the documents to check before a property transaction?

There are two types of documents—important and secondary files of title. Major files of title are probably the most principal documents involving the property. They exhibit the possession history of the property being bought. One of the most secondary files of title help to corroborate the know-how acknowledged in the principal documents of title. The opposite secondary files aid the customer to determine whether or not the construct

2. General list of documents for all properties

i.    Primary documents of title

• Parent deed

That is the Sale deed, gift deed, Partition deed, Allotment letter or equivalent, wherein the gift owner/owners have got the title for the property. This report can also be known as the Mula Pathra and includes the unbroken drift of the title as much as the gift proprietor. Tracing of the title must perpetually with the earliest on hand report, record or order wherein a courtroom or government or a statutory authority has given the rights to the property to its first owner. Then, records which establish the next owners of the property through an unbroken sequence of legal acts up to the present proprietor, i.e. The seller must be traced. Now and then, many of those documents could have been lost over time; in such occasions, the customer should seem on the earliest registered record on hand with the vendor and, with the support of a lawyer, hint the title as much as the gift owner. For the reason that almost all residences in Bangalore have their roots in agriculture, it's possible for the attorney to set up whether or not the property has clear titles and can be legally offered by the use of the secondary documents recounted beneath.

ii.   Secondary documents of title

• Building plan sanction

In case of residences and character houses, you must have a building Plan Sanction issued by means of the BBMP, BDA or the village panchayat for houses under their jurisdiction. For vacant websites in layouts, you have got to check for the design plan sanction, issued through the plan-sanctioning authority. For builder-developed unbiased properties, aside from the layout plan sanction, you ought to have building plan sanction from the BBMP or village Panchayat, under whose jurisdiction the property falls.

•    Khata

the Khata certificate is issued via the BBMP, the BDA or a village panchayat in the title of the present proprietor or house owners. There is not any certain mention of the time period Khata within the Karnataka Municipal enterprise Act of 1976; that is most effective an comparison register which compiles all the important points of each and every property within the metropolis. The time period Khata is a colloquial term and actually approaches an ‘account’. Hence, the Khata is an account of every individual who owns a property in the metropolis. Every property will have a Khata. Every Khata has two materials: the Khata certificate and the Khata extract.

a. Khata certificate

A Khata certificates is bought for the registration of any new property after paying the registration fee. This certificate mentions that a exact property number ‘N’ is held in the identify of individual ‘X’. This certificate is required for making use of for a water connection, electrical power connection, alternate license and constructing license. The Khata certificates are given through the BBMP only to the proprietor of the property or to his legal heirs, and is used for the intent of paying taxes.

b. Khata extract

A Khata extract is a record issued by means of the BBMP that states the title of the property owner, small print of the property, similar to plot size, built-up discipline and so on. The owner can receive this record on cost of `one hundred/- along with a requisition letter to the Assistant revenue Officer on the BBMP’s zonal office for the discipline where the property falls. Most effective house owners can collect Khata extracts. The Khata certificate and Khata extract are unofficially together called the ‘A Khata’.

•    The ‘B Khata

In an effort to comprise unauthorized layouts, sales sites and constructions developed in violation of by way of-authorized recommendations into the property tax net, a provision used to be as soon as made beneath the part 108A of the Karnataka Municipal Council Act. Below the brand new provision, the BBMP would collect property tax from such properties. The details of the property tax gathered from the form of building or condominium or web page are maintained in a separate register, referred to as the B register.

•    Encumbrance certificate

The Encumbrance certificate (EC) is a record that shows the entire registered transactions pertaining to a property in a detailed time interval. It's issued by the sub-registrar’s place of job under whose jurisdiction the property falls. ECs are issued through kind 15 or type sixteen. If mortgage, sale or other deeds with respect to a property are registered within the distinctive interval of time, then type No. 15 is issued with the small print of each transaction. If there had been no registered transactions throughout the special period of time, the sub-registrar will predicament a form 16. Even as buying a property, you should insist on an EC for a interval of at the least 30 years. Though EC is important in ensuring a transparent and marketable title for the property, it does now not furnish the complete picture. Specific documents/transactions need not be registered, and these usually are not proven in the EC. Such records and transactions comprise unregistered wills, unregistered visor of legal professional, unregistered agreement of sale and unregistered mortgages. Apart from these, litigation in courts and tax liabilities are also not shown in ECs. So at the same time purchasing a property, do not rely solely on ECs for a transparent title and seem at other secondary records.

•    Commencement certificate

The graduation or clearance certificates (CC) is given by means of the engineering department of the BBMP for the homes underneath construction in the city limits. Once the constructing license is received and the foundation and peripheral columns had been developed, the builder has to use for the CC. Best after a CC is issued can a builder legally proceed to assemble the entire constructing. Be aware that BBMP will not predicament an OC on completion of the constructing, if the builder had now not taken a CC at the beginning. See OC part below.

•    Occupancy certificate

The Occupancy certificates (OC) is got on the finish of the construction and is proof of plan sanction compliance. As soon as the builder applies for the OC, BBMP is supposed to habits an inspection to verify that the development is compliant with the sanctioned plan. Be aware: hundreds of thousands of flats in Bangalore wouldn't have OCs and but are occupied. One motive for that is that re-sale of apartments and buildings without a OCs is just not barred. Enforcement of OC is weak.

•    Compounding fee receipt

If the development varies from the sanctioned plan that is an important receipt which shows that a compounding cost has been paid to the BBMP for regularizing any deviation from the sanctioned building plan.

•    Conversion certificate

This Conversion certificates (popularly referred to as DC conversion certificate) is issued by using the Deputy Commissioner. It certifies that the property has been changed from agricultural land to a residential property.

•    Tax paid receipts

These are receipts issued with the aid of the BBMP, BDA or village panchayat, recording the cost of taxes for the property.

•    PTCL endorsement

The purchaser can ask the builder/vendor to get a Prevention of switch of distinct Lands Act (P.C.) endorsement. Either the Tehsildar or DC can dilemma this record. That is to establish that the property is not on land granted to person/folks belonging to the SC/ST communities.

•    Land acquisition

The customer can ask for an Endorsement from the special Land Acquisition Officer of the BDA, BBMP, countrywide Highways Authority of India (NHAI), the Karnataka Industrial discipline development Board (KIADB), Karnataka Housing Board (KHB), Bangalore Mysore Infrastructure hall undertaking and others, confirming that there are no acquisition courts cases underway with appreciate to the property being purchased.

•    Family tree

This file shows the genealogical tree within the type of a waft chart, with the names and age of the individuals of the household of the present and earlier owners of the property being offered. It additionally indicates whether the humans stated in it are living or dead; it is licensed by the Village Accountant or the earnings Inspector.

•    General power of attorney

A common power of lawyer (GPA) is a notarized report which empowers another character to behave as your legal representative. A GPA performed by a man or woman dwelling external India will have to be notarized in the country of foundation and stamped in India within 4 months of being notarized. Within India, it is sufficient if the GPA is notarized. GPA had to be registered earlier; nevertheless, the Supreme courtroom has ruled that it's enough if the GPA is authenticated with the aid of a notary public. As a buyer, you have got to make sure that the GPA is legitimate, no longer revoked and is provided by way of the character who has the legal right to offer the equal.

Tuesday, 10 May 2016



In the case of apartments, it's fundamental to position pressure on your developer to give you the occupancy certificates, rather of providing you with only A Khata from the BBMP. In case of Khata, be certain if it is A or B Khata. People with a B Khata property need to supply other documents such as the title deed and all different bureaucracy that points to the actual fact that they've developed property on non-agricultural land and not using a violation of building norms and with ample house for street widening. Once an occupancy certificate is procured, then your Khata can simply be transferred to

1) Title deed and sale deed

2) Copies of property tax receipts that have been paid previously

3) Order of conversion of the land from agricultural to non-agricultural

4) Proof of any improvement charges paid, if applicable,

5) Khata extract issued by the Panchayat submitted by the developer

6) A blueprint showing the location of the property and dimensions and other certified

7) The possession certificate

8) The occupancy certificate


Having a B Khata certificate most effective certifies that the owner has been paying property tax and it is in no way an authorization of his or her possession of that property. The person can't promote or resell his or her property with handiest a B Khata. In December 2014, the high court in Karnataka has declared that a building or property having simplest a B Khata is an illegal property.


The Khata includes the Khata certificate and the Khata extract. The Khata certificates include certification to the influence that a particular property's income documents are within the owner's identify. The second is the Khata extract, which gives details such because the place, demarcations and boundaries of the property, its precise dimensions, whether or not the property is residential or industrial, tax assessment important points and more.


A title deed is a written contract between the customer and vendor. Khata is different. It's nothing however a record validating that your home is eligible for property tax. You can not apply for Khata with a title deed. Khata is inferior to an occupancy certificate. It isn't a sign of possession however just a report of comparison of property and a certification from the government that the property has been bought and now has a new tax assesses.


Khata and  manner account and is nothing more or less than a document that's proof that the property owner has an account with the BBMP for paying property tax. The Khata certifies that a distinct property proprietor is accountable to pay property for his or her property. The Khata has important points just like the identity of the owner, dimension of property, region, tax assessment, constructed-up field, property quantity, demarcations and more requirements.

Saturday, 7 May 2016